What do you see in the below picture? Definitely all of these captions are relevant for this image and there may be some others also. Even a 5 year old could do this with utmost ease. But, can you write a computer program that takes an image as input and produces a relevant caption as output?
Just prior to the recent development of Deep Neural Networks this problem was inconceivable even by the most advanced researchers in Computer Vision. But with the advent of Deep Learning this problem can be solved very easily if we have the required dataset.
The purpose of this blog post is to explain in as simple words as possible that how Deep Learning can be used to solve this problem of generating a caption for a given image, hence the name Image Captioning. To get a better feel of this problem, I strongly recommend to use this state-of-the-art system created by Microsoft called as Caption Bot. Just go to this link and try uploading any picture you want; this system will generate a caption for it.
We must first understand how important this problem is to real world scenarios. There are many open source datasets available for this problem, like Flickr 8k containing8k imagesFlickr 30k containing 30k imagesMS COCO containing k imagesetc.
But for the purpose of this case study, I have used the Flickr 8k dataset which you can download by filling this form provided by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This dataset contains images each with 5 captions as we have already seen in the Introduction section that an image can have multiple captions, all being relevant simultaneously. These images are bifurcated as follows:. If you have downloaded the data from the link that I have provided, then, along with images, you will also get some text files related to the images.
We can read this file as follows:. The text file looks as follows:. For example with reference to the above screenshot the dictionary will look as follows:. The below code does these basic cleaning steps:. This means we have unique words across all the image captions. However, if we think about it, many of these words will occur very few times, say 1, 2 or 3 times. Since we are creating a predictive model, we would not like to have all the words present in our vocabulary but the words which are more likely to occur or which are common.
This helps the model become more robust to outliers and make less mistakes. Hence we consider only those words which occur at least 10 times in the entire corpus. The code for this is below:. So now we have only unique words in our vocabulary. However, when we load them, we will add two tokens in every caption as follows significance explained later :. Images are nothing but input X to our model. As you may already know that any input to a model must be given in the form of a vector.
We need to convert every image into a fixed sized vector which can then be fed as input to the neural network.Simon has been involved in software development since the days of paper tape. He has developed niche software for information management. The leading Windows, web and mobile apps for captioning as evaluated in this review are listed below. More detail of these and other apps follow. To locate them, type Ctrl-F and enter the Application name.
Taking photos has never been easier.
Some estimates place the total number of photographs in the world at about billion. Their content has meaning for the people who took them, and maybe the people who appear them. For anyone else, a few words of context adds enormously to their value to other people. In the paper era, they were often added on the back, or in an album.
Digital photos have a huge capacity for storing data within their file structure, but this is mostly used for recording automatically captured data such as camera and exposure parameters, date and time. Geo-tagging using recorded latitude and longitude from GPS data is frequently added by mobile phone cameras.
However, what people most want to know about photographs are the four W's of journalism - who, what, where and when. Computer power can be applied to answering all of these questions. They may become confused about time zones, but an accuracy of a day or so is all most people want. Without examples, faces tend to be recognized as celebrities.
It often comes up with accurate but uninformative descriptions as shown below. Mobile phones do a pretty good job in well-populated areas,but off the beaten track, results may not be satisfactory. Digital cameras do not routinely have GPS location tracking built in.
Although technology is making inroads into automatically adding the the kind of information humans want to photos, it has a long way to go and adding text manually looks like being necessary for many years yet. With social media came the meme, where the image resonates with the text rather than the text describing the image.
Some memes are the electronic successors to the broadsheets and posters that have been used use to influence public opinion for centuries. When computers were less powerful and graphical user interfaces were a novelty, information about images was often easily visible in the file browsers such as Windows Explorer. In that environment, adding information to a file name or placing the file in a folder with an informative name was what most people did.
Nowadays, applications dominate the operating system. File names and folders are not readily accessible to image viewing applications, especially on mobile devices. This gives new importance to embedding information into images.
Most social media platforms offer image captioning, but the captions are placed on a web page containing the image and are only visible using that platform. If you download a single image from a social media platform, the caption or any other metadata added by the platform does not come with it, although if you download all your images, some metadata may be included in the download.
This review looks at some of the leading software products for a range of image captioning tasks that you might conduct on a desktop, mobile device or using a Web application.
These include adding names of people or places to photos you've taken yourself or creating a meme to reach as many people as possible.Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
ADD TEXT TO PHOTOS
The reasons are two-fold: 1 the extreme imbalance between the number of occurrence positive and negative samples of the concept and 2 the incomplete labeling in training captions caused by the biased annotation and usage of synonyms. In this paper, we propose a method, termed online positive recall and missing concepts mining, to overcome those problems.
Our method adaptively re-weights the loss of different samples according to their predictions for online positive recall and uses a two-stage optimization strategy for missing concepts mining. In this way, more semantic concepts can be detected and a high accuracy will be expected. On the caption generation stage, we explore an element-wise selection process to automatically choose the most suitable concepts at each time step.
Thus, our method can generate more precise and detailed caption to describe the image. We conduct extensive experiments on the MSCOCO image captioning data set and the MSCOCO online test server, which shows that our method achieves superior image captioning performance compared with other competitive methods.
Article :. Date of Publication: 12 July DOI: Need Help?There is no built in tool for this yet but there is a work around, and while you can do this by using an invisible table it's a bit fiddly, and you cannot wrap text around the table, but by using a Google Drawing inside the Doc, you can, by adding a text box to the image instead, here's how.
Now you can either paste in an image you've copied this might have been the image in the doc or add one by clicking on the image icon. Then add a text box underneath —the guidelines should help assure this is aligned properly.
Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions
They can format the text to their preference. WHen they're finished, just click Save and Close. Now they can format the embedded drawing as they would an image, wrapping the text et cetera. Voilah—the finished captioned image. To edit the caption, just double click the image, and a Google Drawing pop up window will open to allow changes to be made. Another technique is to insert a tableadd an image in the top cell, and the caption in the bottom cell. Right click anywhere in the table and choose Table propertiesnow set the outline to 0 pts, voilah!
Search this site. Add a Caption to an Image in a Google Doc. Report abuse.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
Which Photo Captioning Software Is the Best?
If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. The input is an image, and the output is a sentence describing the content of the image. It uses a convolutional neural network to extract visual features from the image, and uses a LSTM recurrent neural network to decode these features into a sentence. A soft attention mechanism is incorporated to improve the quality of the caption.
Training: To train a model using the COCO train data, first setup various parameters in the file config. Otherwise, only the RNN part is trained.
The checkpoints will be saved in the folder models. If you want to resume the training from a checkpoint, run a command like this:. The result will be shown in stdout.
300+ Best Instagram Captions and Selfie Quotes for Your Photos
A pretrained model with default configuration can be downloaded here. This model was trained solely on the COCO train data. Here are some captions generated by this model:. Skip to content.
Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. Python Shell. Python Branch: master. Find file. Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit. DeepRNN minor change. Latest commit eec Mar 22, You signed in with another tab or window.
Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Feb 21, Add files via upload. Dec 26, Mar 22, Keep in touch and stay productive with Teams and Officeeven when you're working remotely. You can add captions to figures, equations, or other objects. A caption is a numbered label, such as "Figure 1", that you can add to a figure, a table, an equation, or another object.
It's comprised of customizable text "Figure", "Table", "Equation" or something else that you type followed by an ordered number or letter "1, 2, Text that you select or create. Number that Word inserts for you. If you later add, delete, or move captions, you can easily update the caption numbers all at once. Click the topic, or topics, below that interest you.
Select the object table, equation, figure, or another object that you want to add a caption to. On the References tab, in the Captions group, click Insert Caption.
In the Label list, select the label that best describes the object, such as a figure or equation. If the list doesn't provide the label you want, click New Labeltype the new label in the Label box, and then click OK.
If you want to be able to wrap text around the object and caption, or you want to be able to move the object and the caption as one unit, you need to group the object and the caption together. If you've already inserted the caption, delete it, do this step, then re-add your caption.
Now text should flow around your figure and caption as expected, and the figure and caption will stay together if you move them somewhere else on the page or in the document. If you insert a new caption, Word automatically updates the caption numbers. However, if you delete or move a caption, you must manually start a caption update.
Right-click, and then choose Update Field on the shortcut menu. All of the captions in the document should now be updated. Once you've added at least one caption to your document you should see a new style displayed on the style gallery called "Caption". To change the formatting of your captions throughout your document simply right-click that style on the gallery and choose Modify.
Here you can set font size, color, type and other options that will apply to your captions. For more information about modifying styles in Word see Customize styles in Word.
To delete a caption select it with your mouse and press Delete. If you have additional captions in your document when you're finished deleting the ones you want to remove, you should update them. That will ensure that your caption numbers are correct after you've removed the ones you didn't want.
Add chapter numbers to captions in Word. Insert a table of figures. Post a question in the Word Answers forum. Do you have suggestions about how we can improve captions or any other feature of Word? If so, please visit Word User Voice and let us know!Abstract We present a model that generates natural language descriptions of images and their regions. Our approach leverages datasets of images and their sentence descriptions to learn about the inter-modal correspondences between language and visual data.
Our alignment model is based on a novel combination of Convolutional Neural Networks over image regions, bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks over sentences, and a structured objective that aligns the two modalities through a multimodal embedding. We then describe a Multimodal Recurrent Neural Network architecture that uses the inferred alignments to learn to generate novel descriptions of image regions.
We then show that the generated descriptions significantly outperform retrieval baselines on both full images and on a new dataset of region-level annotations. Code See our code release on Githubwhich allows you to train Multimodal Recurrent Neural Networks that describe images with sentences. See our Github repo for more instructions.
Update: NeuralTalk has now been deprecatedin favor of the more recent release of NeuralTalk2. Retrieval Demo Our full retrival results for a test set of 1, COCO images can be found in this interactive retrieval web demo.Word 2016 - Picture Captions - How to Insert a Text Caption in an Image MS Office Microsoft Tutorial
These consist of noun phrases collected on images from COCO. Every image has a total of 45 region annotations from 9 distinct AMT workers. Below are a few examples of generated sentences: "man in black shirt is playing guitar. Visual-Semantic Alignments Our alignment model learns to associate images and snippets of text. Below are a few examples of inferred alignments. For each image, the model retrieves the most compatible sentence and grounds its pieces in the image.
We show the grounding as a line to the center of the corresponding bounding box. Each box has a single but arbitrary color. We are also thankful to Yahoo for their generous donation of cluster machines used in this research.